when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthesis: (myOptionalVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionalVar.foo)?? ---- ---- FTL stack trace ("~" means nesting-related): - Failed at: ${WebArt.id} [in template "WebArticleList.html" at line 9, column 80] ---- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:131) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.newDesciptionBuilder(UnexpectedTypeException.java:77) at freemarker.core.UnexpectedTypeException.(UnexpectedTypeException.java:40) at freemarker.core.NonHashException.(NonHashException.java:46) at freemarker.core.Dot._eval(Dot.java:45) at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:78) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:82) at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:41) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:324) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:54) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:345) at freemarker.core.ConditionalBlock.accept(ConditionalBlock.java:48) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:324) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:54) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:324) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:302) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:325) at com.wj.generatePage.generatePageMain.OutWebHtml(generatePageMain.java:824) at com.wj.generatePage.generatePageMain.ArtListSub(generatePageMain.java:558) at com.wj.generatePage.generatePageMain.InItMarkerArticleHtml(generatePageMain.java:353) at com.wj.generatePage.generatePageMain.generatePage(generatePageMain.java:150) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:62) at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43) at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:497) at org.springframework.web.method.support.InvocableHandlerMethod.invoke(InvocableHandlerMethod.java:215) at org.springframework.web.method.support.InvocableHandlerMethod.invokeForRequest(InvocableHandlerMethod.java:132) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.ServletInvocableHandlerMethod.invokeAndHandle(ServletInvocableHandlerMethod.java:104) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.invokeHandleMethod(RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.java:749) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.handleInternal(RequestMappingHandlerAdapter.java:690) at org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter.handle(AbstractHandlerMethodAdapter.java:83) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:945) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:876) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:961) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:852) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:634) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:837) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:741) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:231) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:166) at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:53) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:193) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:166) at org.eclipse.jetty.servlets.CrossOriginFilter.handle(CrossOriginFilter.java:247) at org.eclipse.jetty.servlets.CrossOriginFilter.doFilter(CrossOriginFilter.java:210) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:193) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:166) at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:88) at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:108) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:193) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:166) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:200) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:96) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:490) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:139) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:92) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:74) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:343) at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service(Http11Processor.java:408) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProcessorLight.process(AbstractProcessorLight.java:66) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$ConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:836) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1839) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SocketProcessorBase.run(SocketProcessorBase.java:49) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)